APA References

Preferred Type
times new roman, 12 point font, double space, flush left margins (NOT justification)
Figures Type
san serif (arial)
Hyphenation Rule
no hyphens at the end of sentence
1 inch on all four sides
Paragraph Indentions
use tab key to keep consistent
Components of Lit Review Paper a Manuscript
title page
reference page
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Title Page
running head
Title Type
centered on the page and typed in uppercase and lowercase letters
Title Length
no more than 12 words
Running Head Location
top left corner margin
Running Head Definition
abbreviated title of th epaper
Running Head Length
no more than 50 characters including punctuation and spacing
Running Head Type
all uppercase; use the actual words “Running head:” on page 1
Author on Title Page
first name, middle initial, last name;
omit titles and degrees
Page 1
title page
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
reference page
Abstract Title Type
should be written in upper and lowercase letters in center of top of page
Abstract Definition
concise summary of contents of the article;
gives reader idea of what article is about
Abstract Type
typed as a single paragraph without indentations
Abstract Length
150-250 words
Introduction Title Type
do not type the word “introduction.” instead, put the full title of the article
Introduction Definition
contains a statement of purpose
Statement of Purpose in Introduction
why is this topic important?
how are you going to solve the problem?
what are the objectives of the study?
do the hypotheses and research design relate to each other?
Introduction Purpose
gives background;
how study relates to previous studies;
why it needs to be looked at again;
summary of pertinent arguments and past studies
Literature Review
critical component that allows the researcher to gain knowledge of what research as already been done;
gives the researchers ideas on how to set up their research;
identifies gaps or disagreements in research
Summarizing Research Articles
read article several times, looking up meanings of any unfamiliar words;
write outline of info, then write a summary in your own words;
do not add your own ideas or manipulate information to make it fit your paper;
cite the source
using an idea, words, or information that belongs to someone else without giving the original source credit
Avoiding Plagiarism
must summarize and cite the sources in which you are summarizing their work
Changing Sources in Paper
author must make sure that it is clear which source is being given credit for the information
help readers find key points of your paper and track the development of your thoughts;
5 levels of APA headings
Level 1 of Headings
centered, bold, upper and lower case
Level 2 of Headings
flush left, bold, upper and lower case
Level 3 of Headings
indented, bold, lowercase paragraph heading ending with period
Level 4 of Headings
indented, bold, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period
Level 5 of Headings
indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period
Exceptions to Spelling Out #s
10 or above;
statistical info, mathematical functions, percentages, ratios, percentiles, quartiles;
immediately precedes a measure;
represent time, exact dates, ages, scores and points on a scale, money;
Always Spell Out Numbers
used to begin a sentence
must be written/spelled out completely the first time it is used within the paper followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis, then the abbreviation can be used independently
Direct Quotations
must be distinguished from summaries
include page number on which quote can be found;
Short Quotes Length
less than 40 words
Short Quotes Type
distinguished by “double quotation marks”
Long Quotes Length
40 words or more
Long Quotes Type
omit double quotation marks;
indicate by indenting the material an aditional half inch and keeping the material in block formation;
double space
When to Use Direct Quotes
only if it is absolutely necessary- there is no other way to say the information or if the information is so unique to the author that it deserves to be quoted directly
Citing Sources Within Text
author and year of publication
Cite Author Within Text
surname, initial;
not full given name- just initials;
no titles
Citing One Author Within Context
Doe (2004)
In 2004, Doe
Citing One Author End of Sentence
(Doe, 2004)
Citing Two Authors Within Context
use “and”
Davis and London (2001)
In 2001, Davis and London
Citing Two Authors End of Sentence
use “&”
(Davis & London, 2001)
used only when citing with parentheses at the end of a sentence
Citing Two Authors
both cited each time they are used within paper
Citing the Same Author More Than Once in the Same Year
use (a, b, c) to distinguish the publications
Citing 3-5 Authors Within Context First Citation
all authors cited in order they appear in the paper
Jackson, Donald an Arnold (2010)
In 2010, Jackson, Donald, and Arnold
Citing 3-5 Authors End of Sentence First Citation
(Jackson, Donald, & Arnold, 2010).
Citing 3-5 Authors Subsequent Citations in Same Paragraph
cite primary author followed by “et al.”;
year is not necessary;
no comma between primary author and et al.
Citing 3-5 Authors Subsequent Citations in Same Paragraph Within Text
Jackson et al.
Citing 3-5 Authors Subsequent Citations in Same Paragraph End of Sentence
(Jackson et al.)
Citing 3-5 Authors Subsequent Citations in Following Paragraph
allows the use of et al.
primary author et al. year
Citing 3-5 Authors Subsequent Citations in Following Paragraph Within Text
Jackson et al. (2010)
Citing 3-5 Authors Subsequent Citations in Following Paragraph End of Sentence
(Jackson et al., 2010)
Exception to Rule of Citing 3-5 Authors
citation may not be shorten if the primary author is the same primary author in another study conducted in the same year and cited in the paper because it would be impossible to tell which study was being referred to
Citing 6+ Authors
cite surname of primary author followed by et al.
Citing 6+ Authors Within Text
Thomas et al. (2003)
Citing 6+ Authors End of Sentence
(Thomas et al., 2003)
Exception to Citing 6+ Authors
if it is necessary to list more than one author in order to clarify/differentiate which source the information came from, then a comma is placed between the last name cited and et al.
ex: Thomas, Davis, et al.
Comma Before et al.
only if more than one author is necessary for clarification
Citing a Source with No Author Within Text
use the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title) and the year;
use quotation marks for title of an “article”, “chapter” or “web page”
use italics for title of periodical, pock, report, or brochure
Group as an Author
applies to corporations, associations, government agencies;
group name is spelled out in first citation and abbreviated on subsequent citations
Group as an Author First Citation
Center for Disease Control (CDC, 2010)
Group as an Author Subsequent Paragraphs
CDC (2010)
Secondary Source Citing a Primary Source
cite original source and secondary source within the text
Personal Communication
includes letters, memos, persona. interviews, telephone conversations, etc
Personal Communication Citation
only within text- communicator, method of communication, exact date;
not included in reference list because the reader has no means of viewing information
Multiple Research Studies with the Same Ideas/Conclusions
credit must be given to all studies;
helps reduce redundancy in the paper;
adds credibility to the statement;
semi colon separates two sources- alphabetical order
Reference Page
sources in alphabetical order;
double spaced within the citation and between each citation;
first line flush against the left hand margin;
subsequent lines of the citation are indented one tab over with hanging indent
Digital Object Identifier
reliable means for managing information on the digital network;
hosted by registration agencies such as CrossRef;
alphanumeric string assigned by registry agent;
often located on the first page of the article
changes frequently
Information Found Within the Reference
author, editor, year of publication, title, publishing data
Publishing Data
volume, issue, editions, page numbers, electronic retrieval data